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Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of the blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure over diastolic pressure. Systolic pressure represents the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts and pumps blood, while diastolic pressure represents the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats.

Normal blood pressure is usually around 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension is generally diagnosed when blood pressure consistently measures at or above 130/80 mmHg.

There are two main types of hypertension:

1. Primary (essential) hypertension: This is the most common type of hypertension and tends to develop gradually over time with no identifiable cause. It is often influenced by factors such as genetics, age, diet, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors.
2. Secondary hypertension: This type of hypertension is usually caused by an underlying medical condition, such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or certain medications. Treating the underlying cause can often help manage secondary hypertension.

Hypertension is a serious condition because it places increased stress on the heart and blood vessels, potentially leading to a variety of health issues, including:

Managing hypertension typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes and, in some cases, medication. Lifestyle modifications that can help control blood pressure include:

Medications, if prescribed, aim to lower blood pressure by various mechanisms. These medications include diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers, and more. The choice of medication depends on factors such as the individual’s overall health, age, and any other medical conditions they may have.


    Dr. Chakradhar Reddy. M MBBS - MRCP(UK)